With the pandemic being declared by WHO, everyone is looking for the solution and Coronavirus Vaccine of this outbreak and when the vaccine will be ready so it can prevent people from being sick.
Almost 35 different companies and academic institutes are working towards creating a vaccine and 4 of them have already tried it on animals. The first vaccine was produced by a biotech firm based in Boston known as Moderna and they say that they will have human tests very soon.
This fast paced research was made possible by early Chinese efforts when they were preparing the sequence of genetic Sars-Cov-2, which caused COVID-19.
China shared the reported in January and allowed other groups to research and study how it intervened in the human system and made them sick.
No one ever predicted that the disease could infect globally which is generally a flu and would be considered as a global threat and pose pandemic risks. The vaccinologists are working on the prototype.
Recently coronavirus caused two epidemics, one is severe accuse respiratory syndrome (SARS) in China 2002-04 and other is Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) which started in Saudi Arabia in 2012.
The virus contains genetic material hence the name SARS. It consists of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in a spherical capsule covered in spikes. The spikes cling on to the surface of the human lungs which breaks into their cells. Once the cell is inside the human cells it makes numerous copies and kills the human respiratory cells.
Some Coronavirus Vaccine has been tried and tested but some of the researchers are using new technologies. As per the recent strategy, a recombinant vaccine have been constructed which is extracted from the genetic code on spike and provokes the human immune system.
Other researchers are bypassing the spike and making vaccines from the genetic instruction such as Moderna and CureVac another Boston based firm. They are making the vaccine from the RNA itself.
The clinical trials go through three phases. The first one involves healthy volunteers who will be tested with the vaccine and monitored for any effects. Second one involved taking a hundred people who are affected by the disease and vaccinated to see if the Coronavirus Vaccine is effective enough. And third one would involve thousands of people to go through the vaccine phase.
As per the officials, there might be a chance of attrition level for these experimental vaccines. Clinical trials are very important and they cannot be skippped or rushed. Approvals are very important before rollling out the vaccines. Moreover the officials state that it is necessary that the things are pushed faster but it is also very important no to take any kind of shortcuts.
A professor of emerging infectious disease at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine said that the vaccines won’t be ready before 18 months. Which is why President Donald Trump showed confusion in his meeting in the White House on 2nd March.
One more drawback which is a potential problem in this time period is that once the vaccine is approved it will be needed in huge quantity. Further challenges will be set once COVID-19 vaccine is approved. The global health experts believe that vaccine technology could be limiting factors but economic and political factors could also be a barrier to immunisation.
The main priority is to get the vaccines to those who need it. In case of pandemics, countries would be competing with each other for medicines. Pandemics usually hit hard in those countries that are vulnerable and have underfunded healthcare systems and cannot balance the need and buying of vaccines. When the H1N1 flu pandemic was outbreaked in 2009, many nations snapped up the vaccine supplies and due to that many poorer countries were left short of vaccines.
WHO is bringing charitable foundations and vaccine makers together and agreed upon equal global distribution strategy. Moreover, funding mechanisms should also be raising money to ensure that poor countries are supplied with the Coronavirus Vaccine.
This all is still a debate and it’ll be time before it plays out. The experts are hopeful that vaccines can save many lives but until then they also advice to stay safe from the disease as much as possible and follow the profound advice of washing your hands.